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Friday, 31 May 2013

16 Hypotheses for an Ideal City


The broad headings -Alexander’s hypotheses
1. Public discussion places needed – sense of belonging, of self-actualization
2. Places for young people to meet and challenge each other constructively (Erikson’s identity vs role confusion).
3. Schools open to the city, not closed. (Adolescent feels more connected with society –versus alienation)
4. Small group work stations – happier, more productive
5. Split work and play – leisure needed for sense of belonging
6. Windows in workplaces – access to outside world
7. Old age islands – old people like to live with other old people
8. Group houses – where people live in communes (nuclear family unit too small for adequate support)
9. Homes link closely with street – people will feel more connected with neighbors, safer and happier
10. Homes with walls that can be moved. Adaptable and flexible homes.
11. Teenage room/cottage/studio for self-exploration – Ericson identity need
12. Child care – each house opens off a common area for supervised play
13. City hall small and easily accessible
14. Religious institutions open to community – public displays
15. Frequently placed trees.
16. Better funeral facilities with longer ceremonies.

A number of basic guidelines apply when planning Japanese landscaping



Landscaping Growing in Popularity
The Japanese style of landscaping has the goal of recreating the serenity of a natural environment. Fundamental ingredients used include carefully placed stone, statuary, bonsai, and fish ponds. Bonsai is a traditional technique of training small trees to encourage their growth into certain shapes; it is one of the Japanese arts. Relaxing strolls through the garden are laid out with formal paths.
A number of basic guidelines apply when planning Japanese landscaping. The first being that plants and other elements not be located symmetrically. Nature is asymmetrical. Flowers and trees don't naturally grow lined up in rows or in square formations. The impression to aim for is a space that does not look man-made.
Another guideline of Japanese landscaping is that it must not be crowded. Because yards can be small, sometimes people want to fit in as many plants as possible. This can easily end up looking chaotic and messy. Just like with the Japanese sense of interior decorating, a minimum of plants cleverly arranged can generate an innate harmony of visual calm.
A roughly triangular pattern appears commonly in Japanese landscaping. For example, there are three plants you want to plant, the largest is located first as an anchor point of the triangle. The next largest becomes the second point on the triangle, and the third largest plant the other point. This arrangement helps balance the aesthetic mass of the three elements.
Symbolic meanings are associated with plants and other elements used in Japanese landscaping. Deciduous trees, for example, like the colorful Japanese maple, stand for the change that is constant all through life, since they show a different aspect of themselves every season. On the other hand, evergreen trees stand firm and stable. In order for something always to be in bloom in the garden, flowers are often planted that will bloom sequentially. The colors seen in a Japanese landscape garden tend to be pastel and subtle. In fact, subtle is a good word to keep in mind when planning out your Japanese landscape garden.
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IS the behavior present at birth is in heisted ?


     Not all inherited elements or combinations are present at birth

In any complex human trait, there is a combination of many separate traits that results in capacities or abilities. Thus, musical ability should be thought of not as a single characteristic, but as a complex made up of a number of more elementary abilities, such as sensitivity to small difference in pitch, a rhythm, and ability to remember musical intervals. In a sense of a particular child sensitivity to pitch might come from the mother, a sense of rhythm from the father, the ability to remember tonal intervals from the maternal grandmother, and so on, thus producing a child who has potentiality for music. If anyone were absent, the child could not dependent not go so far in music The possibilities of human adjustment are thus dependent not only upon the Specific characteristics inherited but also upon their combination or pattern.      
     So far as human heredity is concerned, to a very large degree, the capacities used in adjusting to Ife situation depend on combinations of elements rather than the Specific elements. A boy may have very quickly in reaction time, but if he is also very clumsy, Speed of reaction alone will be of little value to him in baseball. If, however, he is quick in reaction and in motor control, a fine baseball. If, however, he is quick in reaction and good in motor control, a fine baseball player may be in the making. Think of the inherited equipment of the human being as composed of literally thousands equipments, which in their combination and pattern make possible a tremendous variety of adjustments.
   Not all inherited elements or combinations are present at birth, as many people suppose. Much of the behavior present at birth is in heisted, since only the limited environment of the fetus has been operating. However, may inherit characteristics do not reveal themselves until sometime well after birth, when the environment is opportune or when development has reached an appropriate level. For instance, one of the phenomena most clearly demonstrated to be controlled by heredity is the character and distribution of hair. The color of the beard, its curliness or straightness, as well as its pattern of distribution on the face is controlled by hereditary factors .But the beard of the male does not begin to appear until puberty and is not complete for several years after puberty.
    By the shuffling and reshuffling of chromosomes and genes, nature sees to it that each person born is a unique combination of the traits and characteristics that have come down to him through his ancestral lines .Each person both resembles and differs from each of his parents and each of his grandparents, in important and minor aspect .His brothers and sisters, in turn, are like him in some respects and different from him in others.
      This unique person moves into an environment which provides him with an opportunity for exhibiting and developing his qualities. The manner in which the culture or environment operates to provide similar experiences and contents for him has been stressed in earlier chapters .Here we will stress another side of the picture – we will point out in addition that first, the environment selects individuals and thus increases rather than decreases uniqueness; and, second that the individual selects from the environment in accordance with his own make –up and thus increases rather than decreases uniqueness.
       The first point is frequently misunderstood. Suppose one hundred boys are given careful instruction in running over a period of three months and have the same amounts of practice .Will they be more alike or more different than they were before? The answer is not a categorical <<alike >> or a categorical ‘’different “but ‘’both’’.