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Monday, 3 June 2013

New Magazine Startup Guide

Having the text keyed-in and thoroughly proofed before it goes to production can help reduce errors and costs associated with revising proofs.

Many people have a "Great Idea" for a magazine but before you begin a magazine launch there is a lot you need to know and plenty of financial support will be required.
Unfortunately, there is no guide book, start up course, or specialized business consultants to help new magazine developers learn the terminology of the industry or the perils that could lie ahead. Unless you have been involved in the magazine business in some form - everything will be new and unfamiliar.
Approximately only one out of ten new magazine ventures will ever be successful. If an individual or business entity cannot absorb the loss of investment in starting and growing a magazine venture, then such a venture should never be undertaken. Magazine publishing is both speculative and risky.
Successful magazines seem to find a special niche or have an identifiable difference from magazine titles that are currently on the market. Also - the successful titles seem to serve a relevance or a need for the consumer market they cover. Many magazine titles serve consumer's passions with increasing numbers focusing on very specific niches. Give your magazine the difference and relevance test.
Magazine Publisher's Startup Guide is just an overview. It was written to help individuals and businesses looking to develop a magazine get a better understanding to what is involved and needed in a magazine startup. It is intended to give you a better overview of the new challenges ahead and a better understanding of magazine requirements and terms. After which you can find more detailed and useful magazine information within web site
Let's Do It!
Design & Layout
You can hire a professional production company to design and layout your magazine pages...or do the work yourself. Keep in mind there are technical specs in which magazines must be submitted in order to print. Only a few layout programs are acceptable. For complete details see Magazine Publisher's "Custom Magazine Design" or "Submitting Print Ready files".
Organizing content for your issues can be a detailed application. It is your responsibility to pull together all editorial and advertising content to be used in each issue. If you have multiple writers it is important to convey to them how you want their stories submitted. It is important that advertisers supply their ads in proper formats. Clearly communicating on the front end what you expect will help eliminate headaches.
It is best to first organize all advertisers that will be included in the upcoming issue of your magazine. Identify placement (if the advertiser has requested a specific location like inside the cover) and verify that all the digital art for each advertisement is complete. Any ads needing creation by the digital department will need to be done first so the advertiser has time to approve the layout. The next step is to categorize your articles and pull together the text files and accompanying photos to be used. Having the text keyed-in and thoroughly proofed before it goes to production can help reduce errors and costs associated with revising proofs. 
Once completed and organized it is time to turn over the files for issue production to your production staff. Remember a clear identification of stories text, photos, captions and ad placements can help direct production artist as they begin to digitally create each page for the magazine. A small hand-made "mock-up" magazine can even be put together with notations on what goes where to help direct the production artist.

‘sketching’ will really help you when creating a CANVAS from scratch.

ARTISTIC  language or taking a course of  design sessions
 For a lot of Sketches document, the most useful reference and the most effective method to learn about sketch is through design tutorials instead of just reading a publication on a particular ARTISTIC  language or taking a course of  design sessions. Similar to some other type of tutorials, they are created to guide you through the detailed processes to let you see everything you need to undertake to get from beginning to finish
In today’s post, we provide you once again with a new compilation of ‘sketching’ that will really help you when creating a CANVAS from scratch. These description or outline are free to experiment with. Thus, take time to master every procedure so that you will be able to create an effective IN ‘sketching’   without having to spend a great amount of money or assistance of an expert.
Here is essential which provides cool tips in creating a ART. 
If you are planning to BE AN ARTIST  then better browse this post as the description  listed below give a simple and faster way to get your CANVAS done while not having to undergo a lengthy process. Have a great time browsing
  • The word ‘drawing’ presents a general term, whereas ‘sketching’ focuses on a specific technique. Both can take the form of an action or object, verb or noun, as each can imply movement. 
  • The Oxford English Dictionary defines a sketch as a brief description or outline ‘to give the essential facts or points of, without going into details.’ Sketches document the primary features of something or are considered ‘as preliminary or preparatory to further development’(1985).
  •  Historically, the act of sketching or drawing on paper involves line. At its most basic level, the production of line constitutes making marks with a pointed tool, initiated by movement and force. 
  • In reverse, eyes follow a line and with that action the ‘line’s potential to suggest motion is basic’ (Lauer, 1979, p. 151). A line, or mark, made with the bodily action of the hands, demonstrates its ability to cause reflective action, as it attracts the human eye to follow it. 
  • This cognition spurs associative thoughts, as the line suggests new forms (Lauer, 1979). Much of the ‘motion’ of a sketch comes from the physical action of the hand; in this way, the tool becomes an extension of the body and reflects the human body. James Gibson, the psychologist and philosopher, writes concerning human contact with a drawing and suggests that making marks is both viewed and felt (1979). 
  • The ‘gesture’ of this intimate participation with a sketch gives it meaning and individuality. The control of a hand on the drawing tool yields not a consistent line, but one that is varied, thick or thin.
  •  The quality of the mark is important, since individual lines produce association in the minds of architects. Gibson believes, in company with philosophers such as Aristotle, that it is reasonable to suppose that humans can think in terms of images (1982). Conversely, but consistent with his theories of visual perception, there cannot be vision without the cognitive action of thought. Sketches can be analogous for actions that do not involve a mark on paper. For example, a quick skit by a comedian may be deemed a ‘sketch,’ although it does not involve the mark on a surface. 
  • Thus, a sketch may be defined by its preliminary and essential qualities. Sketches may also comprise three-dimensional actions preliminary to architecture, such as the fast ‘sketch’ model, or be conceived of digitally as a wire-frame massing in the computer. In such ways, the intention takes precedence over the media. 
  •  How sketches act to assist design thinking designates their value. As these definitions imply, sketches are notoriously imprecise; valueless physically, and seen as a means to find something or communicate rather than as prized objects in and of themselves. 
  • They are usually, but not necessarily, loose and lacking in detail. Some architects make simple but precise diagrams, while others may use sketches purely for communication

Psychological pain is a warning that we are not meeting our primeval needs

If we persistently do things in the wrong order, psychological problems may arise. 
         Psychological pain is a warning that we are not meeting our primeval needs and we need to address this.
        The needs at the bottom of the hierarchy, Alexander argues, are broadly speaking met by modern cities, but further up needs are not being met consistently for most of us.
However, within this basic hierarchy our needs should change with age, as we develop. 
The psychologist Erikson famously defined four main stages of adult development.56 He proposed that we could not pass through the latter stages until we had passed through the former ones.
An ascetic essay from 1966 called ‘Planners’ People’ proves that planners had always aroused suspicion from those who questioned their objectivity. In this case criticism came from within their own profession. 
    The authors – professional town-planners - asked why it was that planners’ drawings for downtown development schemes were always populated with the same ‘stock-cast ‘of six characters.   These were always white, upper middle-class, law-abiding, cultured, and professional - just like the planners themselves.
They concluded that included only those ‘types’ amenable to their own ideals of urban living and overlooked the true heterogeneity of the city. Nevertheless, they placed these ‘stock characters’ in real urban vistas, to lend them credibility.
     In his paper ‘Creating places or designing spaces?’
      Jonathan Dime considers the process of ‘place making’ and tests the degree to which an architect can design a place’ independently of the people who will actually use it.
He argues that while modern architecture has concentrated on the properties of geometric space, psychology has neglected to look at the physical context of behavior.  
   He concludes, not surprisingly, that we can not create a place.

The reason why three-dimensional visualization is better than the other techniques

 The human visual cognition process is studied to find the solution to the current architectural communication issues.

Three-dimensional visualization has been employed extensively by architects as a medium for explaining architectural concepts since the availability of computer-aided design.
         It has been proved to be a far more effective communication technique compared with the conventional methods such as technical drawings and lexical documentation. However, the reason why three-dimensional visualization is better than the other techniques has not been explicitly examined.
             This article describes the problems in the current architectural communication process. It starts with the discussion of the problem of the current communication methods used in architectural design followed by the discussion of the popular communication theory. After that, the human visual cognition process is studied to find the solution to the current architectural communication issues.
           At the end, we three-dimensional architectural visualization as a solution to improve the current architectural communication method

In what ways can architecture impact human behavior?

Social scientists or psychologists links between the design of the built environment and our behavior, both individually and socially

    Designing and constructing environments in which people live and work, architects and planners are necessarily involved in influencing human behavior.
 While Sommer (1969, p.3) asserted that the architect “in his training and practice, learns to look at buildings without people in them,” it is clear that from, for example, Howard’s Garden Cities of To-morrow (1902), through 
Le Corbusier Ville Contemporaine and La Ville radieuse, to the Smithson's’ ‘Streets in the sky’, there has been a long-standing thread of recognition that the way people live their lives is directly linked to the designed environments in which they live. Whether the explicit intention to influence behavior drives the design process—architectural determinism (Broadly, 1966: see future blog post ‘POSIWID and determinism’)—or      whether the behavior consequences of design decisions are only revealed and considered as part of a post-occupancy evaluation (e.g. Zeisel, 2006) or by social scientists or psychologists studying the impact of a development, there are links between the design of the built environment and our behavior, both individually and socially

How a space gains meaning-Ideal spaces for peace and happiness

 The psychological and social aspects of space when two disciplines meet real innovations can be made

           A recent review suggests that patients have recover quickly after surgery if they had access to a window with a view of the natural landscape, that certain light and color combinations increase immunity and that patients are more confident of being looked after well if they are pleasant, calming environments.
Conversely, poorly designed or dilapidated environments dissuade people from seeking help.
               Artistic, aesthetic aspirations and theories about form are in tension with the psychological and social aspects of space, but they are not eclipsed by them. The science of psychology provides some parameters for design without prescribing the end result
            When two disciplines meet real innovations can be made. Certain elements of environmental determinism can be usefully combined with a flexible system, which truly evolves with the user.
As a result of this review I would like to set out a modest manifesto. 
If architects are to design for people they should: 
  •  Be aware that psychologically healthy spaces need to be flexible enough to allow for individual differences, sub cultural differences and changing needs over time, in order to achieve a sense of ‘place’ 
  •  Be aware of certain core, universal human needs while accepting individual and cultural differences,
  • Avoid writing their own subjective scripts for what they perceive to be psychologically healthy buildings or cities, and 
  • If they can not design ideal spaces for peace and happiness, at least aim to minimize psychological and social harm by understanding how a space gains meaning.

Friday, 31 May 2013

16 Hypotheses for an Ideal City

The broad headings -Alexander’s hypotheses
1. Public discussion places needed – sense of belonging, of self-actualization
2. Places for young people to meet and challenge each other constructively (Erikson’s identity vs role confusion).
3. Schools open to the city, not closed. (Adolescent feels more connected with society –versus alienation)
4. Small group work stations – happier, more productive
5. Split work and play – leisure needed for sense of belonging
6. Windows in workplaces – access to outside world
7. Old age islands – old people like to live with other old people
8. Group houses – where people live in communes (nuclear family unit too small for adequate support)
9. Homes link closely with street – people will feel more connected with neighbors, safer and happier
10. Homes with walls that can be moved. Adaptable and flexible homes.
11. Teenage room/cottage/studio for self-exploration – Ericson identity need
12. Child care – each house opens off a common area for supervised play
13. City hall small and easily accessible
14. Religious institutions open to community – public displays
15. Frequently placed trees.
16. Better funeral facilities with longer ceremonies.

A number of basic guidelines apply when planning Japanese landscaping

Landscaping Growing in Popularity
The Japanese style of landscaping has the goal of recreating the serenity of a natural environment. Fundamental ingredients used include carefully placed stone, statuary, bonsai, and fish ponds. Bonsai is a traditional technique of training small trees to encourage their growth into certain shapes; it is one of the Japanese arts. Relaxing strolls through the garden are laid out with formal paths.
A number of basic guidelines apply when planning Japanese landscaping. The first being that plants and other elements not be located symmetrically. Nature is asymmetrical. Flowers and trees don't naturally grow lined up in rows or in square formations. The impression to aim for is a space that does not look man-made.
Another guideline of Japanese landscaping is that it must not be crowded. Because yards can be small, sometimes people want to fit in as many plants as possible. This can easily end up looking chaotic and messy. Just like with the Japanese sense of interior decorating, a minimum of plants cleverly arranged can generate an innate harmony of visual calm.
A roughly triangular pattern appears commonly in Japanese landscaping. For example, there are three plants you want to plant, the largest is located first as an anchor point of the triangle. The next largest becomes the second point on the triangle, and the third largest plant the other point. This arrangement helps balance the aesthetic mass of the three elements.
Symbolic meanings are associated with plants and other elements used in Japanese landscaping. Deciduous trees, for example, like the colorful Japanese maple, stand for the change that is constant all through life, since they show a different aspect of themselves every season. On the other hand, evergreen trees stand firm and stable. In order for something always to be in bloom in the garden, flowers are often planted that will bloom sequentially. The colors seen in a Japanese landscape garden tend to be pastel and subtle. In fact, subtle is a good word to keep in mind when planning out your Japanese landscape garden.
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IS the behavior present at birth is in heisted ?

     Not all inherited elements or combinations are present at birth

In any complex human trait, there is a combination of many separate traits that results in capacities or abilities. Thus, musical ability should be thought of not as a single characteristic, but as a complex made up of a number of more elementary abilities, such as sensitivity to small difference in pitch, a rhythm, and ability to remember musical intervals. In a sense of a particular child sensitivity to pitch might come from the mother, a sense of rhythm from the father, the ability to remember tonal intervals from the maternal grandmother, and so on, thus producing a child who has potentiality for music. If anyone were absent, the child could not dependent not go so far in music The possibilities of human adjustment are thus dependent not only upon the Specific characteristics inherited but also upon their combination or pattern.      
     So far as human heredity is concerned, to a very large degree, the capacities used in adjusting to Ife situation depend on combinations of elements rather than the Specific elements. A boy may have very quickly in reaction time, but if he is also very clumsy, Speed of reaction alone will be of little value to him in baseball. If, however, he is quick in reaction and in motor control, a fine baseball. If, however, he is quick in reaction and good in motor control, a fine baseball player may be in the making. Think of the inherited equipment of the human being as composed of literally thousands equipments, which in their combination and pattern make possible a tremendous variety of adjustments.
   Not all inherited elements or combinations are present at birth, as many people suppose. Much of the behavior present at birth is in heisted, since only the limited environment of the fetus has been operating. However, may inherit characteristics do not reveal themselves until sometime well after birth, when the environment is opportune or when development has reached an appropriate level. For instance, one of the phenomena most clearly demonstrated to be controlled by heredity is the character and distribution of hair. The color of the beard, its curliness or straightness, as well as its pattern of distribution on the face is controlled by hereditary factors .But the beard of the male does not begin to appear until puberty and is not complete for several years after puberty.
    By the shuffling and reshuffling of chromosomes and genes, nature sees to it that each person born is a unique combination of the traits and characteristics that have come down to him through his ancestral lines .Each person both resembles and differs from each of his parents and each of his grandparents, in important and minor aspect .His brothers and sisters, in turn, are like him in some respects and different from him in others.
      This unique person moves into an environment which provides him with an opportunity for exhibiting and developing his qualities. The manner in which the culture or environment operates to provide similar experiences and contents for him has been stressed in earlier chapters .Here we will stress another side of the picture – we will point out in addition that first, the environment selects individuals and thus increases rather than decreases uniqueness; and, second that the individual selects from the environment in accordance with his own make –up and thus increases rather than decreases uniqueness.
       The first point is frequently misunderstood. Suppose one hundred boys are given careful instruction in running over a period of three months and have the same amounts of practice .Will they be more alike or more different than they were before? The answer is not a categorical <<alike >> or a categorical ‘’different “but ‘’both’’.

Saturday, 20 April 2013

Changing Things by Design

Changing Things by Design
The material dimensions of alienability, rivalry, and exclusion cost represent a
“given” or natural infrastructure in which informal institutions evolve, either by
chance or by design, and a set of background conditions against which formal
institutions are formulated and enforced. When those background conditions
change, by chance or by design, the entire significance of social institutions can be
altered. All of which raises the question: if changes in the formal institutions of
society are appropriate targets for political philosophies and theories of justice, why
not also the technological transformation of alienability, rivalry, and exclusion cost?
This is, I take it, a somewhat more focused restatement of a question that has been
asked many times before. Herbert Marcuse’s One Dimensional Man suggests that
the failure to subject technical systems to normative scrutiny is both a political and
a philosophical failure. The political failure resides in the increasing power of
capital and commercial interests to dominate all forms of discourse in industrial
society, while the philosophical failure consists in positivist doctrines that created
an epistemological space in which questions about technical efficiency were
regarded as “value free,” (Marcuse, 1966)

For most people involved in the practice of design, Marcuse’s characterization
of technology has seemed to be too metaphysical, too Heideggarian, and simply too
vague to be of much use. Langdon Winner has had more success in calling for critical
evaluation of technology and technical change by describing what he calls “the
technological constitution of society.” This is a material and organizational
infrastructure that predisposes a society toward particular forms of life and patterns
of political response. Winner illustrates his idea with a number of examples,
notably technological systems such as irrigation systems or electric power grids
that dispose societies toward centrally administered, hierarchical relationships of
political power (Winner, 1986). We should notice that what accounts for such tendencies
is the way that these systems affect the alien ability, rivalry, and exclusion
cost of the respective goods, water, and energy, that they produce and distribute

Thursday, 18 April 2013


why there are different design cultures in different schools of architecture and offices. It will introduce the idea that there are different – though often related – aesthetic, theoretical and
professional communities within the discipline of architecture, which have different ways of valuing visual, textual and three-dimensionalcommunication.
It will also suggest that some of these design cultures are

sometimes perceived to be more powerful and influential than others, so
that some architectural aesthetics, theories and practices receive greater
attention and recognition